Enamelist, inventor of “string” and metal-mesh enameling, and teacher. Studied at the Vienna Imperial-Royal Academy for Arts and Crafts with A. Stark and W. Müller-Hoffmann (1911-1918). Lived in Finland (1920), the United States (1921— 1925), and Austria (1921, 1925-1974). Worked in the studio of O. Kokoschka at the Higher Industrial Arts School in Vienna (1934-1936). In 1927, created the Pantocrator and Theotokos icons for the Dormition Church in Lviv. With the support of ANUM, of which she was a member, organized a school of enamel art (60 students) in Lviv, whose work was showcased in a large exhibition in 1937. Member of the Association of Women Artists in Vienna (1938-1944). Her works were shown in international exhibitions in Amsterdam (1931), Padua and Milan (1933), and London, where she was awarded an honorable mention (1934). Much of her work tended toward a Symbolist or Expressionist aesthetic. Pioneered modern cloisonné technique by inventing a method of “string” and metal-mesh enameling. Also revived the ancient technique of encaustic after discovering that seawater was used as the original binder. Created enamel medallions and chalices. Religious subjects and themes from antiquity commonly appeared in her work. Her students include iconographer lu. Mokrytskyi and children’s book illustrator la. Muzyka. Participated in the international exhibition of Christian art (Vienna, 1957, 1958). Her work achieved global exposure through exhibitions in Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, the Netherlands, England, and the United States. In 1961, together with H. Kruk and S. Borachok, exhibited in a show called “The Three”. Her enamelwork was frequently singled out by critics and regularly purchased by private collectors and government agencies.