A prolific painter known for his Cossacks and genre village paintings from around Kyiv Region. Pymonenko studied iconography at the Kyiv-Pecherska Lavra and later studied at Kyiv Art School (1878-1882) and St. Petersburg Academy of Art (1882-1884). In 1884-1900 taught at Kyiv Art School and along with other artists in 1900 organized Kyiv Art College, a secondary art school that operated in Kyiv from 1900 to 1920. In 1904 Pymonenko became a professor of art at St. Petersburg Art Academy. Pymonenko is also known for being the first teacher of Malevich.